Baduy is found in Kanekes Village, the Baduy people’s traditional area. Kanekes Village is administratively part of the Cisimeut Kemantren region, Leuwidamar District, Lebak Regency, Banten Province. Kanekes Village is around 160 kilometres from the capital city of Jakarta and approximately 78 kilometres from the central government of Banten Province in the town of Serang. The distance from Kanekes Village to the city centre of Leuwidamar District is 27 kilometres, and the distance to the Lebak Regency city centre at Rangkasbitung City is around 50 kilometres.
Kanekes Village is situated in the Kendeng Mountains, which have rugged terrain. According to the Lebak Regency Regional Regulation (Perda) No. 13/1990, the village’s area is 5,101.85 Ha. Kanekes Huma (fields, gardens, or agricultural land), villages, and protected woods are all part of the Kanekes area. The Baduy community is made up of 59 settlements.
The area of the outer Baduy and the inner Baduy
Kanekes Village is separated into two regions: the Baduy Tangtu/Kajeroan area, which occupies the southern area, and the Baduy Panamping area, which occupies the east, west, and north sectors. Cibeo, Cikartawana, and Cikeusik villages are located in the Tangtu Baduy area, whereas 56 villages are located in the Panamping Baduy area. Only village children are permitted in the Baduy Panamping region. There are also Dangka inhabitants, specifically Baduy folks who live outside Kanekes Village. They support Baduy culture and descent although living outside Kanekes. They retain their Baduy identity because they continue participating in traditional Baduy activities. In Baduy, the Dangka leaders are constantly involved in all decisions.
Baduy settlement patterns take the shape of communities or are formed through time. Each hamlet is built near a water source, such as a spring, a river, or a ditch. Within the village, there are several houses on stilts in clustered levels, placed such that the collection of dwellings is in the centre. The houses are typically built face to face, with a space of roughly 2-3 meters between them. Even though there are no windows in the house, sunlight and outside air can enter via the crevices in the walls.
Meanwhile, a saung lisung (a place for pounding rice), a tampian (a place for bathing), and a leuit (rice barn) building belonging to the family have been erected on the outside perimeter. There is frequently a vacant plot of ground in the centre of the community, such as a field or yard. The space is used by children to play or to dry yarn, clothes, and other items.
Baduy people’s livelihood
The Baduy people’s livelihoods are divided into the main livelihood and auxiliary or side livelihoods. The primary source of income for the Baduy people is dryland farming, also known as ngahuma. Side employment at Baduy Tangtu includes sap tapping and weaving or knitting crafts. Making palm sugar; weaving the traditional Baduy cloth; making woven or knitted crafts; selling food and soft drinks, yarn, and batik cloth with Baduy patterns purchased from Jakarta and Majalaya; selling Baduy clothes, honey, and handicrafts to other areas; and even now, some are pioneering to become tour guides for tourists visiting Baduy.
Two different government systems manage the life cycle of the Baduy: official government and informal government. The formal government system refers to the Republic of Indonesia’s government system, which works in all villages in the country. Kanekes Village is officially overseen by a village chief named Jaro Pamarentah. A carik assists him in carrying out his duties. Local government or customary governance systems are examples of informal government systems. This ordinary governance system takes the shape of kapuunan institutions, which are required to follow daily provisions that are overseen by the highest familiar leader, the puun.
Baduy tribal leadership
The puun is the highest leader in the kapuunan institution, and he leads the Baduy. In addition to puun, jobs in the kapuunan institution include girang seurat, jaro, baresan, harvesten, pangasuh shaman, tangkesan, parawari, and kokolot. Each post in the Kapuunan institution has its own set of authorities.
The Baduy tribe believes in three types of realms in Sunda Wiwitan, which are as follows:
- Buana Nyungcung: the abode of Sang Hyang Kersa
- Buana Panca Tengah: the abode of humans
- Buana Larang: hell
The Baduy follow the Sunda Wiwitan religion, founded on the veneration or worship of ancestral spirits or karuhun and believes in a single power, Batara Tunggal. Their religious headquarters is located at the top of a mountain called Sasaka Domas or Sasaka Pusaka Buana. The object of this worship is essentially a megalithic heritage complex relic in the shape of a terraced building or terraces, including several menhirs and statues. The ‘ancestor’ karuhun congregate there.
Puun, the descendants of Batara Panjala, are the descendants of karuhun who directly represent them in the world. Puun, in addition to being the highest leader, is also the monarch of the Sunda Wiwitan religion and the most sacred leader. They must respect all of his orders and utterances. Puun also conducts traditional Baduy rites such as kawalu, ngalaksa, seba, muja, and refuses reinforcements.
Photo taken from @dudiperdana